Te Arapiki Ako
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3. What do readers need to know in order to decode?

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Last updated 26 October 2012 15:29 by NZTecAdmin


  • Readers need to have some concepts about print in place so that they know what to expect from written text. These concepts concern the rules and conventions of written text.
  • As they decode, readers draw on knowledge that includes:
    • the names of the letters of the alphabet, along with the sounds that each letter makes; and
    • an understanding of the relationships between letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes)
  • Fluent readers are also able to recognise words automatically without needing to decode them by sounding them out. These words are called “sight words”.


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